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2020-09-23 13:08:33

    Visual Specialization and Brain Evolution in Primates [RSPB]
    RA Barton 1998

    Abstract: Several theories have been proposed to explain the evolution of species differences in brain size, but no concensus has emerged. One unresolved question is whether brain size differences are a result of neural specializations or of biological constraints affecting the whole brain. Here I show that, among primates, brain size variation is associated with visual specialization. Primates with large brains for their body size have relatively expanded visual brain areas, including the primary visual cortex and lateral geniculate nucleus. Within the visual system, it is, in particular, one functionally specialized pathway upon which selection has acted: evolutionary changes in the number of neurons in parvocellular, but not magno- cellular, layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus are correlated with changes in both brain size and ecological variables (diet and social group size). Given the known functions of the parvocellular pathway, these results suggest that the relatively large brains of frugivorous species are products of selection on the ability to perceive and select fruits using specifc visual cues such as colour. The separate correlation between group size and visual brain evolution, on the other hand, may indicate the visual basis of social information processing in the primate brain.

    This article is required reading if you want to read his 2004 PNAS article since the PNAS article uses his previous findings to make speculative and receive counterintuitive results on the role of the parvocellular layers and magnocellular layers on binocularity. Both articles provide highly speculative hypotheses that can provide a long critique/thought/thinktank sessions. Nevertheless, these articles both provide information on the role of binocularity and speculates on whether the brain evolved due to more internal or external forces. 


    One Marine Animal Could Be Next Biofuel

    Scientists are looking to the ocean for the next big thing in renewable sources of biofuel for your eco-car.

     Five researchers at the University of Bergen (UiB) and Uni Research say they found the marine animal tunicatecould be used as a renewable source of biofuel. These marine animals serve as bacteria eaters and as a foodstuff in Korea and Japan right now, but the cellulose, the protein and the Omega-3 fatty acids in tunicate are the cause for its many uses.

    “Its mantle consists of cellulose, which is a collection of sugars. When cellulose is cleaved, one can obtain ethanol. And ethanol can be used for biofuel in cars. The animal’s body consists of large amounts of protein and Omega-3. This can be used for fish feed,” says Professor Eric Thompson at UiB’s Department of Biology.

    The researchers say they have already acquired a patent for biofuel and have a patent application pending for the cultivation of tunicate as fish feed.

    Dr. Sc. Christofer Troedsson of Uni Research’s Molecular Ecology Group and head of the research at UiB’s Marine Development Biology and the tunicate research project said the bioethanol used today is unsustainable, as it comes from foods already used for human consumption.

    “That is why there has been a move towards using cellulose from the timber industry to produce bioethanol,” Troedsson said. “However, it is quite complicated to break down the cellulose in trees and convert it into ethanol. This is because the wood contains a substance called lignin, which is hard to separate from the cellulose. Tunicates contain no lignin. Their cellulose is also low in crystals and is more efficiently converted into ethanol.”

    He said using tunicate rather than trees is more environmentally friendly because it does not occupy large tracts of land that could be used for other purposes.





    Singing Sand Dunes

    But there is a marvellous thing related of this Desert, which is that when travellers are on the move by night, and one of them chances to lag behind or to fall asleep or the like, when he tries to gain his company again he will hear spirits talking, and will suppose them to be his comrades. Sometimes the spirits will call him by name; and thus shall a traveller ofttimes be led astray so that he never finds his party. And in this way many have perished. [Sometimes the stray travellers will hear as it were the tramp and hum of a great cavalcade of people away from the real line of road, and taking this to be their own company they will follow the sound; and when day breaks they find that a cheat has been put on them and that they are in an ill plight. Even in the day-time one hears those spirits talking. And sometimes you shall hear the sound of a variety of musical instruments, and still more commonly the sound of drums.

    The Travels of Marco Polo

    Travellers in the desert have long known that shifting sand can make an eerie noise, ranging from a bass boom to a baritone bark and a soprano whistle. The sound occurs when the ridge of a sand dune builds up and eventually topples. This shear effect causes a mini-avalanche of sand in which millions of grains rub against each other as they fall. But different materials and different conditions make different songs.

    Lab experiments show that synchronicity plays a vital role. Put simply, enough grains have to be flowing at the same rate in order to create and amplify the oscillation. In turn, the factors behind synchronicity are wind speed, humidity, the size of the sand grain and the smoothness of its coating, too.

    Much of the scientific fascination surrounding booming dunes stems from the fact that their properties are so hard to pin down. Booming doesn’t occur on all desert dunes. And on those that do boom, the phenomenon doesn’t occur throughout the entire year or everywhere across the dune. The frequency can vary too – from roughly 65 to 120 Hertz – while the volume can reach 110 decibels — just 20 dB short of the pain threshold.

    The sound is not related to the type of dune or its location. And while it’s mostly at a pitch akin to the drone of a low-flying aeroplane, its timbre ranges from a rough brass-like clamour of Oman’s dunes, on the Arabian Peninsula, to the pure vocal sound of Morocco’s. Scientists agree that the noise only arises from a dune’s upper slip face (the leeward side), never from the shallow, windward face. What’s more, booming only happens when conditions are hot and dry and when the sand grains are clean, round and polished.

    Despite these clues, the most fundamental question remains: what does make the dunes sing?

    Sources: [x] [x] [x]
    Image: [x]
    Audio: Physicist Simon Dagois-Bohy and his fellow researchers at Paris Diderot University in France recorded two different dunes: one near Al-Askharah, a coastal town in southeastern Oman, and one near Tarfaya, a port town in southwestern Morocco..

    The highway that leads too you

    i close my eyes i see a highway me in a car at top speed flying down the road i wonder what im driving away from but i relize im driving to you and thats y im going so fast so i can hold you and love you for it is that rush you give me that makes my heart beat so fast with the car hitting top speed i feel my heart at the same speed i open my eyes you stand infront of me everything stops i see a glowing image that says these words she is your angel she is your gift from god she is your heaven this is your sancutary you searched for and your prayers are being answered for u have proven to show the world what true love is

    Blind Mans Sight

    We all have wishes we all have dreams i looked for the first star waiting to see for it was that one wish i wanted to make that would help me see yet it was not a wish which would open my eyes i look to you i see you my eyes are open it is my heart that is closed i open my heart i look to you i see what i wished upon need no star for it was you i wanted it is you i have i just look with my eyes to only find a women but i see with my heart i have someone i love with the blind man sees with his heart he is the blessed on to have to feel something to see it we rely on our eyes when we should look to our hearts

    The ring leaders Mask

    A true ring leader wears a mask for he is the show he is the one that has a spot light no one knows that's him behind the mask but non one deserves to know for what reward is given when the reward has no price what eyes should see when they will only turn away a mind sees only what our eyes look at the truth is something eyes always truth is something eyes always will shut for when it is in sight for we never wanna see the truth we hear about it for we control how we say what we hear but what we see is always played in the back of our mind

    To the bark which never leaves my heart

    The angels cry the blood is not seen but the silent death is heard her silent breaths slow her heart beats is unheard her eyes fall closed your my furry love you my protector your my silent friend whose thoughts were always heard your love was felt pieces of you lie stuck to me your death was peaceful honorable your voice will always lie apart of our dinner talks the angels open their arms in welcome the bed is laid down your clock has stopped your bark is heard never will that sound leave my heart never will a tear fall without your memory happiness follows te beginning of your new journey this is your right path this is what your life has come to but never will the healing you have given me be forgotten

    Rebuilding for war

    I stand in the rain watching your car leave. I know I should run after you but I see this not as a movie, but as what the real world is. For if I was to run after you I would be running towards a car wreck. I cry to thought of not being able to fight for us. This is my time to fight for myself my army is gone my men lay to rest. I must rebuild I must look to repair my fortress before I go back into battle. I feel as a ghost dead but still wondering the earth I haunt the fortress of my heart. I wander around looking to the portrait of those I have fought for yet even dead I can't speak to them. I stand upon the towers you send you messenger. He speaks for you as you look to tell me that your not going back into battle anytime soon but I know the truth I can see the dark side of the moon. I know what the battlefield is like and I know your war is to be fought soon. Why is it the gods cry upon my lose yet they are the ones delivering the pieces of my broken heart. All I look for is someone to sit with me in my throne but maybe I look for to much, maybe I look for a dream and not reality. I stand looking at the stars one day my answers will come one day I will see the plan which was laid out for my life, one day I will feel as a king and won't be hiding away in the dungeon.

    What darkness may follow

    The rain falls the clouds form my sight goes dark I see no light what is this fallen darkness no star lights the sky. If you are to show yourself within the darkness grant me the sight of the night walkers. You hide to raise your chance to stab me in the back I stand here unarmed you look to kill me in cold blood. My blood as acid will burn through your gloves to scar your hands never may you wash my blood off your hands my death as a poison it will slowly kill you inside yet this poison has no antidote your only way to rid yourself of the pain is to accept your place in internal damnation you are to see you mistakes and live life baring my pain may the knife which you used to stab me in the back lie in your sight yet just out of reach to show you the choice I couldn't make myself about life or death

    Always will i remember you

    You tell me to speak for myself so I open my mouth, but yet you silence me. You tell me to stand up for myself, but yet you break my legs. You tell me walk on my own, but yet you follow me everywhere. You tell me to look for the light yet place me in the darkest place. You tell me to listen only to myself, but you drill your opinions in my head. You tell me to open my heart to the one who will never let me done, So i turn to the mirror and tell myself. You silence me because i speak for you not me. You break my legs so i may learn how to stand up on my own. You follow me so i may know someone will always be right over my shoulder. You drill your opinions so i may see what the world will bring but I must learn to drown them out. So I open my heart only to see you test me to show your love. You test me because you didnt get the chance to raise me. You test me to make sure im ready for when you leave. I passed you may be gone but your voice is heard in the thoughts of my beating heart always will i remember our few memories always I will remember the man you are always I will remember how much you loved me. Always I will follow my heart and have you see the man I become. Always I will remember your name.

    Farewells to my past.Welcome my future

    I run before the clock stops. I race to get there before my opportunity has come and gone. I look ahead I see the light slowly fade. My door to you is closing. My light is disappearing before my eyes. My heart slows my legs weaken my eyes begin to burn what is this pain I feel. I look to you for my heart beat why do you walk away with it without a thought of remorse. I see they pain that follows the love for you yet I still go back. I see the mistakes I have made. But yet I lie blinded to the path I must take. I see what life love holds for me, but it is the life within myself I have lost. I look to live only with the beat of another heart. I look to my happiness through the smiles of others. I look to the mirror I see a unknown person, pushing myself to the side for that is my true sacrifice so others may smile I look to give a hand when I have none left for me. I try to see my answer to confusion I try to find the path I have fallen off of I may see myself when I am with you but I must find my reflection in the water before others may see it. The ripples in the water have blurred my reflection I look for the water to settle so I may see the true me. I look with no patience and always jump in without thought by my heart lyes to broken to jump in without knowing where I will land. I look to slow time so I may slow my thoughts but life will keep me in the fast lane time for me to catch up to speed and stop fearing what my destination will be I gotta keep going without staring into my rear view mirror. I gotta stay focused so I can make into in one piece I look to be on a long journey not alway a lone but some nights will be dark and hard to keep going. I must rely on my eyes to watch for what is around the corner but I know I truly won't know till I'm there. Here is to my journey, here is my map, I say bye to those who lie in my rear view mirror and look forward to those I meet on the way there.

    My memories as ashes. My strength to stand on my own.

    I see the field ahead. I see the the stars as my light. I see the moon hidden upon the clouds. The box burns to ashes, the memories of my past lie as ashes upon the field blowing away in the wind. Those of my life go, I see the photos of them float away upon the blowing breeze. I listen as the silence slows my heart. The trail upon my journey here lies broken and misleading. I sit here defending myself from love, defending myself from the curse that follows me, the cancer which slowly kills me. I open my heart in trust, i slowly die from my heart being shattered into many pieces. My heart slowly fades away from the idea of believing. I look to write upon the sky in anger for help as i fall to my knees. My tears fall as if were beads of crystals yet pound on the ground as a army of marching men. Beneath me the ground shakes upon my heavy falling tears, I scream in anger, I cover my eyes you come in from the darkness. I no to stay away yet i slowly rise and walk toward you. Why is it i stand here with so much fear yet not one thought of why i shouldn’t be running to you. I stand upon the roof yelling for the truth but all i see is the darkness. Clear to see it is my beating heart which will bring me to see my path. For my path may have shown me the wrong way to go and had lead me to see the world through darkened eyes, it has not stricken me from seeing the truth I have seen the side which is hidden from unwilling hearts. It may have not been my choice to be granted this sight but may i go blind my eyes will never forget what true sight is for even those who are not blind may be blind to see the truth of this world they call home. We all hide our memories within our hearts wether it be fear, love happiness or sadness we all have ways to face them mine is to watch as they slowly burn and blow away for truly they are nothing more then what I make their value in my life to be. The fear that the tears I have shed will always follow this “listen upon those words of promise of no pain yet remember no word sticks. You hide in fear of being upon the light yet you slowly lift your head and look upon yourself what is it you believe in, what is it you will trust in other then yourself your path has told you to run away but towards yourself you’ll be able to stand there and hold yourself high to show those what was once told to be impossible to find lies upon your own grip show the world the words of miss believers slows your path but you will never stop you from searching for the truth .

    Words of those who lie silent

    I sit here starting a game of chess a game of many strategies few sides to stand with few differences that can be seen. Upon the middle of the battle field I see two colors, two choices, one chance to go down fighting by the rules. Civilization similar always two sides, always many ways to win or lose it all and always the king and queen in the back lines waiting for all others to run in first. I stand in the middle to see no differences to those who stand on the front lines. I see no difference to who they protect. The one thing I do see clearly that this is no game of chess this is what our world has always been this battlefield is our way of war. It is a way for the kings to cowardly play out there battle and have no price for lose for it is a game just as war to them.iit is a game of power of hunger for money, of dreams to truly be in power. If you want to truly stand one with your men stand beside your men for what respect can you receive if the only hands you can shake are those who stand for you out of fear out of force, but not out of respect. With you wanting to change our views, change our minds, show us difference don't speak of it. Show us courage don't speak of how we have it. Show us honor don't sell us it. Show others you stand with your country not behind it. This is time for change this is time for a new spin to the world. Lets change this as we are the new start the new start the new molds for where we are to go as a country. We march in name of country. These are our hearts, our dreams and our lives now lets show how proud we are to have them. Lets show how happy those who fought for this country made us. Lets stand in silence for all those who had to lie in silence we walk free for no barrier lies in our way but the ruins of those barriers lie still till this day. Just all seem to have gone blind to the truth all have seem to forgotten the path we took to get here what has been done may not be undone, but let's respect those who have fallen for this silence to make it a thing of choice not a decision by a forceful leader this is our freedom this is our country this is our pride this is our words for those who could not speak.

    What lies in a reflection

    I look to smash the glass window that stands between us, the thick reflective piece that holds our two worlds a part.  I look through it as if it isn't there, yet when I look to get close it presence lies in my way.  I kick, I scream, I try to smash it yet nothing seems to work. You stand so close, yet you are to be untouchable. I look to find a way through but no path seems to have a result. I see the mirrored glass as it truly stands, it may be glass but what lies on the other side is my inner self.  I look to break through the barrier which resists me to reach the true self which lies within We try so hard to break through that barrier.  Yet it is that barrier which protects us from ourself, for it is that barrier that keeps us separate from what we see and what we truly are. We look to reach the person who is behind the glass, but the person you must leave behind is in the reflection  You may see that reflection as your destination but it is the person behind the glass which will truly reflect who you are to world and those around you In life we can stare at our reflection or reflect the side which is unseen by our eyes but felt within our hearts

    Father's birthday

    I sit here with your cake made. Your candles are lit. The lights are dimmed. The crowd comes to a silence. This is your time for your wish. This is your moment. We stand around with your thought in mind. With your memory in place. Your day is now. But your memory is forever. With the gust of wind the candles go out. The darkness fills the room. Your presence is felt. Your hand is felt holding our hearts. Another years has passed it may not be a day you celebrate with us but we celebrate for you. You love is felt beyond your grave . Your glow is seen in your candles . Your soul is seen in the smoke of the candles. R.I.P always will your memory lie close to us  Love your dear Son  Have good party dad


    You look to see a smile but only find a blank face. You look to find a tear yet only find a dry face. You look to find happiness yet only see the darkness that is surrounding. You look to find me yet only find a mask. You look to find yourself yet only find emptiness. You look to find answers but yet only find more questions. Before you look to judge me look to yourself to see what lies behind your mask. I left my mask behind yet my true identity is more of a mystery. You may judge those who speak out. But look at what you speak for then judge

    Journey of what the young boy lost

    I stand above you grave breathless. No sight that a kid should see. Holding a shovel digging a hole. What shall lie in that hole is only to be seen by him. His heart lies in ash within the vase. No tear shall fall for his emotions hide behind a mask. A mask which lies glued to his face. The little boy has slowly become one with the mask. For no one shall see his emotion. As he believes his heart lies exposed when the tears are seen falling from his face. This war of him versus the world breaks him into a pieces of an unsolvable puzzle. Pieces lie scattered upon the table all the same color, no piece different from the next. Only time may place this puzzle back together. We look for the answer within the colorless puzzle. His life looks to be a tomb stone. His name engraved upon the thick rock for generations to see his name but yet no body lies in the hole. They look to bury him for his sins. Yet his only sins was trying to survive with no guidance. As a young boy he grew up over night for no young boy can complete the duties of a man but yet he has been handed the list sent into the wild with his list and his bag of tools. The world has many different views. The world has many different outcomes. What the world doesn't have is a plan for all for the boy who grew into a man yet never been into the wild walks blindly to the truths of what lies ahead. I look for answers upon the skies listening, upon the whispers in the wind your voice is heard through the crackling of the fires, through the gusts of wind, through the howls of the wolves to the silent guitar silently strumming up above. You lie up above within the heavens. You try to light a path for me yet I have searched for that path but have come to find that the true path may only be seen through the heart of a believer. Not of belief of a god, not of belief of a drawn out blueprint to life, but of belief that those we love will lie high up above in the heavens. With what some may call gods, saviors, heroes but in the end I call them men and women for in the end that's what they are we all start at the start line, we all face challenges. Some embrace, some run in fear. We can look at those challenges as stepping stones for some or sinking sand for others. I know for myself I have had my stepping stones and I have had my sinking holes but in the end I feel the wind blow, I hear your voice silently whispering through the windy air. We can look upon death as our darkest nightmare or see the darkness as the path way to light. For silence falls upon us as they slowly fade from our hearts but forever will you lie in what I see as the true sanctuary in serenity for we can look down on the death of those close, but I look up for I may not see you with my eyes I may not hear you with my own ears. I see you within my heart I hear your heart beat through mine and I forever will see your life and presence through those who remember your name I may not see you as a man I can hold and touch but I'll always see you as a man I can look up to for never will I look down when I hear your name always will I remember your image painted upon my heart for ever will you hold the title as my father your teachings may not lie in books but always will they lie within my heart